Archive for the ‘US Army’ Category

Sprinkle some water on your CAB . . . maybe it will grow into a CIB!

February 2, 2017

So said my endearing Senior Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) with a huge grin, uponcib my pinning on my Combat Action Badge (CAB) in 2005 after my first Iraq deployment. So why the humor (other than standard NCO busting out an officer)? The CAB is a relatively new award initiated in 2001 where the Combat Infantryman Badge (CIB) has a much older lineage back to 1943 when it was initially referred to as the Combat Assault Badge. The name was changed that year to the CIB and stars added to indicate award of the badge in separate wars.

Award of the CAB is not limited by branch or military occupational specialty like the CIB; however, to receive the CAB, a Soldier must not be assigned or attached to a unit that would qualify the Soldier for the CIB – meaning I think that a soldier should not have both a CIB and a CAB?  “September 18, 2001, is the effective date for the new award, when President Bush signed Senate Joint Resolution 23, authorizing the use of military force against those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States.”

cab-miniThe CAB, whose design features both a bayonet and grenade, may be awarded to any Soldier performing assigned duties in an area where hostile fire pay or imminent danger pay is authorized, who is personally present and actively engaging or being engaged by the enemy, and performing satisfactorily in accordance with the prescribed rules of engagement, according to the specific eligibility requirements.

The requirements are laid out in a Department of the Army letter published on June 3 which lays out the documentation required to receive the CAB badge. This includes eyewitness detailed description of the engagement, the enemy forces, and the nature and consequences of the engagement.  This same letter also discusses changes to the Combat Infantryman Badge and the Combat Medic Badge. HQDA Ltr 600-05-1 and (See AR 670-1). The CAB is categorized as a Group 1 badge.

The CIB has a bar which is blue (color associated with the Infantry branch). The musket is adapted from the Infantry insignia of branch and represents the first official U.S. rifle (well really a musket – the 1795 model Springfield Arsenal musket). It was adopted as the official Infantry branch insignia in 1924. The oak symbolizes steadfastness, strength and loyalty.

Military Actions covered by the CIB: World War II:   Dec 7, 1941 – Sept 3, 1945 Korean afghan-expWar:   Jun 27, 1950 – July 27, 1953 Laos:   April 19, 1961 – Oct 6, 1962 Vietnam:   March 1, 1961 – March 29, 1973 Dominican Republic:   April 28, 1965 – Sept 1, 1966 Korea DMZ:   Jan 4, 1969 – but before Mar 31, 1994 El Salvador:   Jan 1, 1981 – Feb 1, 1992 Grenada:   Oct 23, 1983 – Nov 21, 1983 Panama:   Dec 20, 1989 – Jan 31, 1990 Persian Gulf War:   Jan 17, 1991 – April 11, 1991 Somalia:   June 5, 1993 – March 31,1994 Kosvo: Afghanistan: Iraq: The complete criteria for each area and inclusive dates are listed in Army Regulation 600-8-22.

iraq-expSo there is a little well intentioned ribbing between the “little CAB” who would and the “mighty CIB” but at the end of the day, both represent that the individual wearing the badge answered the call to defend our country when needed and moved toward the sound of the guns in the most demanding circumstances.

(shown Afghanistan Campaign Medal; Executive Order13363 on November 29, 2004 and Iraq Campaign Medal created by Executive Order 13363 on 29 November 2004)

 

 

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What . . . Army Staff Identification Badge ?

February 2, 2017

What exactly is that green looking badge worn by many working in the Pentagon? The badge is called Army Staff Identification Badge (ASIB) and awarded to those who are assigned to the Office of the Secretary of the Army and the Army Staff at Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA).headquarters_us_army_ssi

While technically neither an award nor a decoration, the badge is a distinguishing emblem of service (although each person must prepare a recommendation for award of the badge and it is reflected in one’s official file).

Each staff member is issued the ASIB temporarily, once a member has demonstrated outstanding performance of duty and meeting all eligibility requirements the badge can be awarded permanent after one complete year (365 days cumulative) and receive a certificate authorizing permanent wear of the badge.

As background, General Douglas MacArthur proposed an Army General Staff Badge in 1931, but it was not until 1933 that the United States War Department authorized it. The badge has remained unchanged in appearance since it was first created, however, the name was changed in 1982 from the Army General Staff Identification Badge to the Army Staff Identification Badge..

cstc-afghanistan-patchOn the United States Army uniform, the Army Staff Identification Badge is worn centered on the right breast pocket. However, since the uniform regulations have changed to allow the wear of a “combat patch” on the Class A uniform the ALARACT 203/2010 wear guidance also says the ASIB is worn on the left breast pocket when worn in conjunction with a CSIB (Combat Service Identification Badge) more commonly known as a combat patch.

For example, one of my personal patches from 2008 and 2009 is the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A) is shown. CSTC-A located in Kabul Afghanistan was formed out of the Office of Security Cooperation-Afghanistan and is in partnership with the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

What do Chiquita bananas and Hurricane Relief have in common?

November 30, 2016

What do Chiquita bananas and Hurricane Relief have in common? hondurasWell a lot actually but its a story that isn’t often told.  If you didn’t know it bananas, are grown at farms in tropical regions of the world. The banana industry in the United States gets its bananas from tropical regions like Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama. This supply chain started back in 1899 when American railroad companies operating in South and Central America merged with the Boston Fruit Company to create the United Fruit Company. In the 1920s, the honduras-4United Fruit Company established a powerful organization in Honduras exporting to and gaining the dominant market position in the United States.  The company cleared and planted lands for bananas developing extensive road, railroad and port facilities. The company also built housing and schools for the children of employees, hospitals, and research laboratories.  It could be said that many of these roads and the only deep water ocean port  in Central America form the basic transportation network in Honduras today.

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Photo Jonathan Long

 

In our post 9/11 world many have never heard of the US Military operations called “New Horizons.” This is an engineering and medical exercise to benefit the people of Central America and the Caribbean. During these missions, military engineering teams deploy from the United States to build

 

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Photo National Weather

On now to hurricanes. Bananas aren’t the only things that grow in the tropic areas – hurricanes do too. One hurricane in particular, Hurricane Mitch, was the most powerful and destructive hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph. The Category 5 Hurricane (SSHS) killed more than 11,000 people and some estimates put the figure as high as 18,000, making Mitch the deadliest storm in the Western Hemisphere since the Great Hurricane of 1790 (1). Hurricane Mitch delivered 180 mph winds while hovering over Honduras for more than a week and sustained winds of 285 km/h (178 mph) for 15 hours.

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Photo Jonathan Long

While we in Panama watched with dread, there was little anyone could do while the storm raged. We had been planning for follow on construction operations in Honduras after the 1997 exercise but now all schedules were dramatically accelerated. Our mission changed from national assistance for Honduras to humanitarian assistance.  From my point of view, this change in mission occurred naturally and was very smooth. Maybe this change seemed so smooth because we had just completed the gigantic “relief in place” after a yearlong operation in Bosnia. In 1996 we moved from a European based Implementation Force (IFOR) of 60,000 (which I was part of), to a Stabilization Force (SFOR) of about 30,000 (2). This was a classic “relief in place” conducted on a huge scale but others may have a different view. Little did we know at that time that conducting RIP/TOA (relief in place / transfer of authority) would become so common place during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

 

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Photo Jonathan Long

Immediately after the hurricane, the U.S. responded with over $300 million in humanitarian assistance, providing food, medicine, emergency shelter, and agricultural assistance through the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. military, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and civilian relief workers – again another example of joint operations similar to what we had just conducted in Bosnia and a foreshadow of Iraq and Afghanistan operations. My job was to provide the on the ground, contracting assistance for all construction logistical support in Honduras. Following Hurricane Mitch 5,300 military personnel were deployed to Central America, representing all four armed services and reserve components – again Joint Operations.

 

So what did we do, what does this have to do with bananas and why is the US Military so

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Photo Jonathan Long

successful at responding to calls for international help?  I think our success results from our adage “train like you fight” meaning we don’t have one standard for training and expect some other outcome when its “go time.” First things first, we had to get the personnel and their equipment from the United States into Honduras – no easy task since the ports had sustained damage and one port was closed unable to receive the roll-on/roll-off ships. These LMSRs are huge capable of cargo-carrying capacity of more than 300,000 square feet. The Port of Cortes was our only reception point.

 

The operation was little different than similar missions I had conducted while rail loading M1 Tanks in Korea for Team Spirit or moving a Signal Battalion of soldiers and equipment from one end of Germany to another. However, unlike Korea and Germany, there were no established logistics elements at the embarkation point, along the route or at the destination. All that support would need contracting. We contracted for food, contracted for living quarters, contracted for line haul transportation for heavy equipment, contracted for cleaning services, and contracted for building materials.  The key was synchronizing all these contracts so they were delivered or performed at the right place and at the right time.  No less was acceptable – but it was difficult to do while located in Panama.

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Photo Jonathan Long

Within days after the flood waters had receded from the airport in San Pedro Sula and the airlines partially resumed flights, I caught a flight to Belize (which was accepting commercial aircraft) and then a twin-engine prop plane into Honduras. Luckily I had provided very similar logistical contract support the previous year in Honduras, I knew the general layout of the area and many of the contractors located in the vicinity. When I arrived at the airport I could see the discolored and muddied height of the flood waters reaching a height of about 9 feet but it was the mud that caused the runway closure. The destruction caused by the storm was immediately evident and devastating to roads, bridges, and homes.

 

What made the most dramatic impression on me were the blue tarps strung in the mediums of the roads providing temporary shelter to families whose homes were lost to the storm. It was dramatic but a completely different disaster

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Photo Jonathan Long

environment than that I had just experienced in Bosnia where homes; while still standing, were pock marketed with bullet holes, partially burned and in many cases walls pierced open by tank rounds. In both cases the people were living in elemental conditions without electricity, running water, heating or cooling or toilets. In both cases, the people were now refugees in their own country. Whether from either ethic warfare or natural disaster both were equally cruel, especially on the kids.

 

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Photo Jonathan Long

Back to bananas. Here is where the infrastructure work developed by the United Fruit Company in the 1920’s came into play – most if not all the routes we used to move personnel and equipment around Honduras were built on the road networks developed to support the banana export business. That was my first order of business before I could develop the contracting support needed, I had to locate the planned base camps and construction sites so I would know where contracted services and supplies would be delivered.

In some cases, because of the preplanned development projects, these camps were in remote locations and in some cases, they were

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Photo Jonathan Long

not. Regardless of location, I travelled to each work site to make sure required sand, gravel, cement and concrete could be delivered by commercial transport. That is not to say these roads were in great shape to start with but believe me when I say they were worse after the hurricane.  In some cases, we did contract for private airfields to enable the delivery of supplies and personnel by US Aviation, specifically in the direction from San Pedro Sula to Yoro.

 

Once the materials were on site and the contracted services began performance, the US Military took over and started to work. We worked with and trained Contracting Officer Representatives (COR) to manager the performance and ensure that we received the 981124-F-2167C-008quality of materials and supplies that we required. During this time, military personnel are credited with rescuing more than 1,000 people trapped by flood waters providing medical care and immunizations to over 35,000 people. Our construction battalions cleared major roads (some as old as the 1920’s) and bypasses, as well as erecting prefabricated bridges (Bailey Bridges). Our military personnel rebuilt medical clinics and schools, and provided communities with safe drinking water by building wells. Military aircraft, including 53 helicopters were deployed throughout the region to assist distribution delivering more than 3.2 million pounds of food and more than 500,000 gallons of water. It is reported that the military transported to the region almost 8 million pounds of food, clothing, medicine and relief items donated by American citizens (3).

President Clinton called the U.S. Southern Command NEW HORIZONS response to Hurricane Mitch “the largest humanitarian assistance mission since the Berlin Airlift.” Honestly at the end of each long day it wasn’t about a Presidential proclamation, or about the danger and excitement of running historic roads or even about traveling through miles and miles of epic date palm and banana plantations; it was about choosing to be in a position where we know we helping individuals make their world and ours a better place. So whether we used roads built for the banana business or not, whether operating in the Korea or Bosnian winter, or the heat of Iraq or Afghanistan – and even in hurricane drenched Honduras, that’s what’s in common – working to make the world a better place.

 

 

(1) http://www.history.com/topics/hurricane-mitch

(2) https://www.defensie.nl/binaries/defence/documents/reports/2009/05/

(3) https://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/New/centralam/fsheet1.html

You know that Picatinny helmet rail?

August 9, 2016
ACH w NVG Mount
Army Combat Helmet (ACH)

 

I am working on a project that includes mounting a new piece of video kit on the Army Combat Helmet (ACH). While looking at one of my developmental helmets from 2005 shook my head a bit and considered all that is old comes back around.  This time the subject is the Picatinny rail.  When the ACH was introduced into the US Army inventory after some modification of the “Mitch Helmet” used in the previous years by US Army Special Forces, the basic version included just the Night Vision Goggle (NVG) mount. THe ACH as first fielded is a far cry from the helmets worn in combat today.

Rail pic b

At the time. the US Army program office for Soldier Clothing and Individual equipment located at Ft Belvoir, VA was looking at each piece of Soldier gear and considering how we could make it better, lighter, or more durable.  Soldiers were being asked to carry numerous new pieces of gear that needed batteries, antennas, lights and so forth.  Operating these new devices “hands free” would be a bonus – especially when you already had your hands full! I talked this challenge over with one of the ACH producers Mine Safety Appliances Co (MSA) and Russ Suchy – he came back to me with a prototype rail system shown below for the ACH.  I don’t know how long this development had been in the works before I diagramed out a pencil drawing of the ACH showing where I thought a rail could be applied. My point was the attachment mechanism for the rail use had to use the pre-existing mounting hard wear and holes. More holes in the helmet = bad.

ACH w Pict Rail v2

Informal internet research finds that the rail itself may stem from work by the “A.R.M.S. company in the early 1980s and Otto Repa in standardizing the Weaver design,” but I cant provide the exact references.  I did review the Mil-STD-1913, dated February 3, 1995 document and can see that at least as far back as 1995 rail capability was known to the US Army.  Interestingly this MIL Standard was focused on small arms.  Picatinny was the supervising office.

Picatinny Arsenal’s role in naming the rail during test and evaluation which created the military standard could be as simple as the official documentation. The MIL STD as recorded on the lowly DD-Form 1426; dated 1989 was overseen by Picatinny. Who knew that the rail would grow to such popularity in use?  Now days on most any special forces blog site you can see variations of how the Picatinny rail has been adopted for helmet mounts.

Rail pic a

MSA’s role changed when Revision Military announced in June 2012 the purchase of MSA’s North American ballistic helmet business. The purchase included the acquisition of MSA’s U.S.-based helmet manufacturing equipment and operations located in Newport, Vermont.

Regardless of whether its MSA, Revision, Gentex, Crye, or a host of other excellent combat producers, the fact that the Picatinny rail seems to be here to stay is without question.  Just look at the variations in helmet mounts (and not even mentioning weapon and hand guard rails!) and you can see that the creative adaptation has not stopped!

Rail pic c

 

Its a Funny Thing Memory and a Cigarette Box

March 14, 2016

cig bobby trapMemory association can be a funny thing. Take for example an empty cigarette box laying on the sidewalk during a morning run.  For most “normal” people all they see is an empty paper box that should be thrown in the trash can, but for some of us who went through deployment training as part of the Implementation Force (IFOR) NATO-peace enforcement force (Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Joint Endeavour), what I see is a potential booby trap.  Before heading into Bosnia to join some 54,000 troops from 32 countries we trained for week at the Europe-based Combat Training Center (CTC) Hohenfels Training Area, Germany. Field training in freezing January in Germany is a “thrill” to say the least.  The block of instruction I remember best involved hand made booby traps now thanks to Iraq and Afghanistan are officially renamed “Improvised Explosive Devices” (IEDs).

This training was necessary because United Nations estimates at the time were that Bosnia has been seeded with four to eight million land mines (later doubled) with many turned into booby traps. US Army’s First Armored Division Public Affairs talked with the New York Times back in 1995 and said “there’s a wide variety of mines, from high tech mines all the way to crude, hastily fabricated mines,” and “Some of the mines are handmade –land mine sign croatian– out of wooden boxes.” Did you know that former Yugoslavia was one of the few countries that proudly promoted manufactured booby-trapped items like flashlights, fountain pens and door handles? Me neither – talk about mission suck! So we had to train to recognize potential booby traps and mines. I really wasn’t worried about myself setting off a booby trap, but I did worry constantly that one my 60 soldiers in my Company Command or those driving our soft side HMMWV’s all around Bosnia would set off a mine. I knew we were planning on establishing communication systems in lots of building, mountain tops and other places that were likely mined or booby trapped.

So what’s the big deal with an empty cigarette box, or a block of wood or even and empty soda can sitting there so innocently on your path to work?  Well they all can be tied with a nearly invisible fishing line that is attached back to a tree, door or wall mounted explosive device. Once you pick up or kick that item our of the way (hey, who doesn’t kick a rock or stick off a path?) the dummy item pulls the line pin and the device explodes. Devices were often set about waist level, to cause the greatest amount of physical damage. Image US Army Survival Regulationfrags

To get some idea of the extend of mines and traps when I arrived at Tuzla Main in January 1995, our first safety brief off the plane was that the base has been heavily mined. That’s why all of the forests on the base are ringed with loops of barbed wire and wooden stakes painted red warning of mine fields. We had mine fields just dozen feet from my tent and reminded ourselves daily about the danger on our walk to and from work.  In Bosnia, concrete was your friend any anything else could be mined. The second point was don’t stand up on the protective berms around the base because you will be silhouette and sniper target.  Wow- what a great welcome to Bosnia!

tree mount

Its amazing how creative people can become when it involves killing other people.  This diagram was taken from the USMC Pamphlet on Viet Cong use of Mines and Booby Traps during the Vietnam War.  Obviously after years and years of civil war within the former Yugoslavia, the various factions had perfected their craft. Note to self on the situation shown below – leave the watch alone.

In sessions conducted in 1995 before leaving for Bosnia, our training was to touch nothing that we didn’t own and to go nowhere that has not been cleared with mine sweepers.  The Bosnia mantra was if you didn’t drop it – don’t pick it up.” Good advice because according to the UN site dedicated to monitoring land mines, the initial estimate of total land minesanti-tankmine2 was more than doubled to seven million mines in Bosnia. Looking back at the data in the former Yugoslavia after a year in country 1996, antipersonnel landmines killed 42 Peacekeepers and injured Note to self on the situation above – leave the watch alone.  alone.315. https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jn74.htm

Bringing it back around to memory and association, while we cant help but immediately recall our training and experiences given certain stimuli, we can step back from the memory “jolt” and say, “I am so glad none of my troops were injured.” I appreciate that any negative memories are worth this price because we were successful in stopping the regional genocide that by 1995 had claimed the lives of some 100,000 people reported as the worst act of genocide since World War II. http://www.history.com/topics/bosnian-genocide

 

Learning to “Embrace the Suck”

January 11, 2016

Lessons I learned From My Executive Officer (XO).  Deploying about five hours from Bad Kreuznach Germany to the Grafenwoehr training area Germany, February 1995. We arrived at the training area back entrance perimeter road just as night was falling and found the route unimproved and loaded with snow and ice.

Our convoy consisted of HMMWV vehicles, 2 1/2 (deuce and a half) trucks and 5 ton wreckers.  All had to stop and chain up and the deuce and a half’s just would not cooperate.  Because it was getting late and the assembly area was not identified nor were there heated billets open and ready; as the battalion logistics office I was responsible so moved ahead with a small team to begin the coordination. We needed to have the footprint ready for the headquarters company and three signal companies headed in an hour plus behind us.

There were no company areas established, no tents, cots, warm food or latrines ready when we were finally guided to our battalion position. Most of our headquarters company column was still out on the road chaining truck tire chainup in the deep snow in the darkness and now I learned that the deuce and a half blew a tire in the process.  Three signal companies were converging from different routes on our location and we were not ready to receive them. Everyone including company commanders were complaining it was cold, their assigned terrain was crappy, there were no portable latrines, no miramite cans of hot food.

We all wanted to give up and just do nothing, catch some sleep sitting in our vehicles until the next day and the hell with the guys out there trying to replace those tire and get chained up.  That’s not the way operations works and one of the greatest lessons I learned from my XO was when things are at their worst you have to “put on your rucksack,” embrace the suck and keep going. I remember distinctly him saying “what do you want to do, just go lay down in the snow and die?” because there was no one else who is going to solve our problems.mermite cans

So little by little we made a list of all the things that need to get done that evening to get the battalion back on its feet, get all the soldiers and vehicles accounted for, coordinate for some sort of food, get the vehicles in place and refueled, set up perimeter security and find a warm barracks that we could use for the night and rotate soldiers for a sleep plan.  We sent out a reconnaissance to go find the remainder of the column on the backside of the training area and guide them into our assembly area. We sent out another reconnaissance to go meet with the training point of contact and find warm billeting for that evening. We distributed MREs for the meal that night and contacted the logistics support unit to bring in mobile latrines so soldiers could take care of themselves. tent in snow

I think that’s the thing about leadership – the leader has to be relentless in enforcing the standards for the organization; be willing to stand up and provide the direction to everyone else even when they don’t to do anything at all.  The leader has to have the confidence to stand up and say  “let’s get going, let’s get this done, and let’s move out.” Sometimes we all don’t want to keep on going and it would be much nicer to just stop, sit down and take a rest in place and try again tomorrow. That decision might be a killer one and the right thing to do is to get up and keep going, embrace the suck and always keep moving forward.

 During his Army career, the author served in a broad diversity of acquisition, command and staff positions and has combat experience in both Iraq and Afghanistan first deploying to Southwest Asia in 2004/05 then re-deployed to Kuwait and Afghanistan in 2006 and again to Kuwait and Afghanistan in 2008-2009. His last deployment was to Afghanistan summer of 2009 supporting the Combined Security Transition Command- Bosina 1995Afghanistan. His prior assignments include Executive Officer, Army Acquisition Support Center, Fort Belvoir, VA. Commander, Defense Contract Management Agency, Northrop Grumman, Azusa, CA, and Chief of Mission Support (Contingency Contracting) United States Army, South, Fort Clayton, Panama from where he traveled to and supported operations from Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. From 1988 to 1997, he served in a extensive range of operational command, leadership, and staff assignments in the 1st Cavalry Division, the 2nd Infantry Division (Korea), the 7th Infantry Division, and the 1st Armored Division (Germany and Bosnia).